 # Memorization

Explore activities that help children memorize addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division math facts. Memorization is:

“The process of committing something to memory or learning something by heart.”

-Oxford dictionary.

Memorizing math facts is something that all students work towards during their time in primary and elementary school. Children engage in repetitive exercises to learn 5 + 5 =10 and 8 – 5 = 3. Primary Montessori children work on memorizing these same essential equations. However, in the Montessori approach, we first introduce children to the big-picture concept of the four operations so that they have an understanding of what 5+5 actually means. Children use hands-on materials to learn that addition is “putting together small quantities to make a larger quantity.” They play games to determine that multiplication is “putting the same quantity together many times to yield a larger quantity.” Only after lots of experience with these big-picture concepts do we introduce the memorization of essential math facts. The children then find that learning these equations by heart helps them to perform the four operations with greater accuracy.

## At Home Memorization Activities:

In the Montessori classroom, we introduce children to hand-on materials that help them derive the math facts. The activities below are opportunities for repetition with memorization after these hands-on lessons have been practiced. ### Addition Strip Board ages 5 -5 ½ and up

* The addition stripboard is best used after a formal presentation by the teacher. ### Addition Practice Charts ages 5 -5 ½ and up ### Addition Blank Chart ages 5 -5 ½ and up ### Subtraction Strip Board ages 5 -5 ½ and up

Notes: The Subtraction Strip Board is a bit more involved than the addition strip board and is best used after a formal presentation by the teacher. Please see your child’s guide for full instructions as to how to use this material.

### Subtraction Blank Chart ages 5 ½ and up

Directions: Print the subtraction blank chart and the subtraction answer tiles. Cut out the tiles and arrange them above the blank chart, grouping like numbers. Print and cut out the subtraction equations. Read each essential subtraction equation and determine the answer. Look for the answer tile. Use your fingers to find where the answer tile should be placed on the blank chart (similar to how you used the subtraction practice chart). Continue until the entire chart has been completed, and all of the answer tiles have been placed.

### Number Puzzles ages 6 and up

Directions: Use your addition and subtraction math facts to solve the number puzzle.

### Notes: The Multiplication Board is a bit more involved than many of the other memorization materials and is best used after a formal presentation by the teacher. Please see your child’s guide for full instructions as to how to use this material.

### Multiplication By Ten ages 5 ½ and up

Notes:  After working with the multiplication bead bars, children learn the pattern that occurs when a number is taken ten times. This allows them to quickly solve problems involving any number multiplied by 10.

Directions: Print the worksheet and solve the multiplication problems. Use commas as needed as you record the answer. Read the answer aloud as a composite number (13,254 = Thirteen Thousand, two hundred fifty-four).

### Multiplication Blank Chart ages 6 and up

Directions: Print the multiplication blank chart and the multiplication answer tiles. Cut out the tiles and arrange them above the blank chart, grouping like numbers. Print and cut out the multiplication equations. Read each essential equation and determine the answer. Look for the answer tile. Use your fingers to find where the answer tile should be placed on the blank chart (similar to how you used the multiplication practice chart 1). Continue until the entire chart has been completed, and all of the answer tiles have been placed. ### The Unit Division Board ages 6 and up

Notes: The Unit Division Board is used to help children derive the essential division equations. This lesson is a bit more involved than many of the other memorization materials and is best used after a formal presentation by the teacher. Please see your child’s guide for full instructions as to how to use this material. 